Sampling in research methods

To search for scholarly resources on specific research designs and methods, use the SAGE Research Methods database.

Sampling Procedures - Educational Psychology

Longitudinal data facilitate the analysis of the duration of a particular phenomenon.Brooke is a psychologist who is interested in studying how much stress college students face during finals.Refine concepts and theories that are invoked in relatively unreflective modes of thought and discourse.The new interventional strategies are carried out, and this cyclic process repeats, continuing until a sufficient understanding of (or a valid implementation solution for) the problem is achieved.

Given this, the number of study participants remains constant (or can only decrease).Beyond methodology, philosophy also informs critical thinking about epistemology and the structure of reality (metaphysics).Most social scientists seek causal explanations that reflect tests of hypotheses.Functions as a means of gaining greater self-understanding and self-knowledge about the purposes of research.

Develop a Research Proposal - Data Collection - Sampling

The cross-sectional design can only measure differences between or from among a variety of people, subjects, or phenomena rather than a process of change.RESEARCH DESIGN Qualitative, Quantitative. and Mixed Methods Approaches SECOND EDITION John W.The sampling method is not representative of the entire population.Can provide a basis for applying ethical decision-making to practice.

Exploratory research generally utilizes small sample sizes and, thus, findings are typically not generalizable to the population at large.


Any group that is knowingly studied is altered to some degree by the presence of the researcher, therefore, potentially skewing any data collected.May generate new knowledge new insights or uncover hidden insights, patterns, or relationships that a single methodological approach might not reveal.Observational research is useful for discovering what variables may be important before applying other methods like experiments.As a consequence, the overall validity of the study will be undermined.

In social sciences research, obtaining information relevant to the research problem generally entails specifying the type of evidence needed to test a theory, to evaluate a program, or to accurately describe and assess meaning related to an observable phenomenon.Enables survey researchers to get close to the kinds of causal explanations usually attainable only with experiments.Because cross-sectional designs generally use survey techniques to gather data, they are relatively inexpensive and take up little time to conduct.With this in mind, a common mistake made by researchers is that they begin their investigations far too early, before they have thought critically about what information is required to address the research problem.Can estimate prevalence of an outcome of interest because the sample is usually taken from the whole population.

Sampling Technique & Sampling Size - Home

Design focuses on pragmatic and solution-driven research outcomes rather than testing theories.After each sample is analyzed, the researcher can accept the null hypothesis, accept the alternative hypothesis, or select another pool of subjects and conduct the study once again.Applied Social Research Methods Series, no. 5. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2003.


This type of sampling is less likely than probability sampling.Non-probability samples are limited with regard to generalization.Unlike more complicated sampling methods such as stratified random sampling and probability.If two variables are correlated, the cause must come before the effect.

Convenience sampling - Research Methodology

Due to the lack of control over external variables, historical research is very weak with regard to the demands of internal validity.This is a collaborative and adaptive research design that lends itself to use in work or community situations.The function of a research design is to ensure that the evidence obtained enables you to effectively address the research problem logically and as unambiguously as possible.In certain types of sampling strategies,. nonrandom methods.The independent variable is administered to the experimental group and not to the control group, and both groups are measured on the same dependent variable.Because they do not truly represent a population, we cannot make valid inferences.Approach provides the highest level of evidence for single studies.

Personal over-involvement of the researcher may bias research results.The essentials of action research design follow a characteristic cycle whereby initially an exploratory stance is adopted, where an understanding of a problem is developed and plans are made for some form of interventionary strategy.Lack of information can severely limit the type of analyzes and conclusions that can be reached.The descriptive function of research is heavily dependent on instrumentation for measurement and observation.In direct observations, people know that you are watching them.